Brief analysis on fire extinguishing tactics of at

2022-08-21
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Brief analysis on the fire extinguishing tactics of atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit in oil refining production

petrochemical enterprises include the production of oil refining and oil deep processing. Atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit is the primary large-scale production unit in the whole oil refining production. Because the raw materials and products in the atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit are toxic and flammable. Explosive substances, and the production is in the state of high temperature and high pressure. In addition, the device itself is tall and the pipelines are vertical and horizontal. Once a human disaster occurs, it will cause heavy losses. Therefore, the fire extinguishing plan should be selected in advance for such fires, so that they can be extinguished accurately and effectively after a fire occurs

atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit mainly includes eight systems, including crude oil pretreatment (desalination and dehydration), atmospheric distillation, vacuum distillation, oil refining, steam generation, gas recovery, sewage treatment, heating and hot water station, etc. by using the different boiling points in crude oil, various hydrocarbon mixtures are separated repeatedly through condensation and vaporization. The unit is managed by computer and DCS system, Implement the integrated and unified control of the central control room. The key parts of the device include: gas separation system, electric desalting and dewatering tank, pressure reducing tower, hot oil pump room, tower bottom pump outlet pipeline, etc

for the major parts of the device, we selected the gas knockout tank and the pump room at the bottom of the tower to establish a fire-fighting tactical plan

(I) fire extinguishing tactics of gas knockout tank fire

1. There is a large amount of gas and light gasoline in the gas knockout solution at the fire site, which is located between the atmospheric tower and heat exchanger of atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit

2. Danger in fire fighting ① if there is leakage at the flange or pipeline joint of the gas knockout tank, gas and a large amount of oil and gas will burn, a large area of ground and space fire will soon be formed. ② If the human potential is not controlled in time or the process is not taken, the adjacent equipment will burn. When putting out a fire, the oil and gas into gas will gather at a certain position, and if it is not washed away by steam or foggy water in time, it will form a secondary explosion

3. Tactical principles and fire fighting measures ① after receiving the alarm, go out quickly and conduct fire reconnaissance after arriving at the fire site. If gas leakage is found, the detection equipment shall be used to measure its concentration, draw a warning area, set warning signs, and then stop the leakage. ② If the flange or pipeline breaks and overflows, put out the fire with dry powder or mist water, and cool the production tank of our experimental machine around with a DC water gun. ③ If a large-scale combustion has been formed, the dry powder truck should be quickly mobilized and all forces should be concentrated to approach the combustion area. However, after the development of the new chemical materials industry, the dry powder gun should be used to spray dry powder into the burning parts. After the fire is extinguished, the combustion tank should be quickly cooled with spray water, and the process treatment should be carried out under the cover of the water gun. ④ If a large amount of oil and gas has leaked, forming a ground flowing fire and tank fire, and it is determined that the leakage cannot be stopped at the moment, the ground oil fire should be put out first, and then the gas fire should be extinguished when the time is ripe to prevent secondary explosion. 5 for the gas leakage fire, it is often concentrated in the ground pits and pipelines, and the diffusion speed is very fast, and the combustion range is large. When putting out the fire, it should be surrounded from all around, Gradually reduce the combustion range, and then routine inspection: the radial tension test of the pipe ring, the diameter expansion test of the pipe ring, and the stripping test of the pipe ring are eliminated at one stroke

4. Precautions for fire extinguishing ① after arriving at the fire site, pay attention to the changes of the fire and do not enter the combustion area easily. ② Pay attention to cooling the adjacent tanks, atmospheric towers and heat exchange equipment to prevent the fire from expanding. ③ Pay attention to the change of wind direction. The water gunner is not only used for 3D printing. It should stand in the upwind and crosswind directions as much as possible, and choose favorable terrain to prevent explosion accidents

(II) fire extinguishing tactics of the pump room at the bottom of the tower

1. The pump room at the bottom of the tower is located on the side of the constant pressure reduction tower, the lower part of the cooling equipment, adjacent to the gas separation tank area, and the pump at the bottom of the tower pumps high-temperature hot oil, which is the pump area of the open air machine

2. Danger in fire fighting ① the pressure of high-temperature light oil delivered by the tower bottom pump is high, and once it leaks, it will quickly form a large area of pump body and ground flowing fire. ② After the pump seal is cracked, the oil spills. If you don't pay attention to timely control or put out the fire, the oil pipeline and flange will burn too long, which will lead to pipeline burst. ③ Pay attention to the fire fighting methods, otherwise personal injury and death accidents will occur

3. Tactical principles and firefighting measures ① in case of a fire in the pump room at the bottom of the tower, effective measures should be taken to control the human potential, prevent its spread and prevent the expansion of the situation. ② While adopting process treatment, steam and dry powder shall be used to eliminate the initial fire. ③ If the pump body bursts, the oil pipeline breaks, and a large amount of oil leaks out, forming a large area of combustion, it is difficult to use dry powder to put out the fire with high intensity at the moment, and blocking, diversion and piecemeal elimination can be carried out. ④ After the material is cut off and the pump is stopped, surround it with dry powder, foam and spray water, attack inside and outside, and eliminate the fire at one stroke

4. Precautions for fire extinguishing ① correctly select fire extinguishing agents and pay attention to fire-fighting methods to prevent electric shock accidents. ② Control the spread of fire and cool adjacent equipment. ③ Do a good job of fire warning to prevent chaos in the fire

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