Prevention of fire safety accidents in the hottest

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Prevention of fire safety accidents in chemical enterprises recently, fire and explosion accidents in chemical enterprises have occurred from time to time throughout the country, causing no small casualties and property losses, and having a bad social impact. For example, at about 13:30 on November 13, 2005, a serial explosion occurred in the aniline workshop 2 of the benzene plant of PetroChina Jilin Petrochemical Company, which caused a large-scale fire, resulting in 5 deaths, 1 missing, 3 seriously injured, more than 60 injured, tens of thousands of residents were evacuated, and the direct property loss reached more than 70 million yuan; At 9:00 on July 28, 2006, an explosion occurred in a workshop of Yancheng fluorine source Chemical Co., Ltd. in Sheyang County, Jiangsu Province, killing 22 people and injuring 29 people, of whom 5 were seriously injured; On December 6, 2006, at least 3 people were killed, 37 injured and many others were missing after an explosion caused by the leakage of a propane storage tank of Fokker company in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in the Midwest of the United States. The occurrence of such fire safety accidents has seriously affected the steady economic development and social stability and harmony. It is of great practical significance to do a good job in the prevention of fire safety accidents in chemical enterprises and use them correctly

chemical enterprises involve many inflammable, explosive, toxic and corrosive dangerous chemicals, which are easy to form explosive mixtures with the air after leakage. There are many high-temperature and high-pressure equipment, and the production process is complex. Because the holes and pipelines in the buildings are staggered, it is easy to form chain reactions after accidents. These factors determine the inherent fire and explosion risks of chemical enterprises. The characteristics of fire safety accidents are:

first, the accidents are sudden and have a wide range of influence, which are very easy to cause heavy casualties and property losses. Chemical enterprises produce, process and store a wide range of raw materials, intermediates and products, with complex types, many inflammable, explosive, toxic and corrosive substances, strong sudden accidents, rapid expansion, violent combustion and explosion, and great destructive power, which are very likely to cause heavy casualties and heavy property losses in the accident area and surrounding areas. Due to leakage or combustion and explosion, the scene of chemical accidents is often filled with a large number of dangerous chemicals, which seriously threatens the lives of the on-site masses and fire-fighting and rescue workers. On April 16th, 2004, Chongqing Tianyuan Chemical Plant leaked chlorine gas and caused an explosion, evacuating as many as 150000 people. In addition, chemical disasters and accidents often cause environmental pollution in surrounding areas, and the losses are incalculable; At 15:09 on June 16, 2006, the production line of the powdered emulsion explosive production workshop of Anhui Dunan Chemical Group Co., Ltd. exploded, killing 16 people and injuring 24 people, with direct property losses of 6.0666 million yuan

second, the situation at the scene of the accident is complex, and it is difficult to put out fire and rescue. The accident scene of chemical enterprises is generally complex, often accompanied by the phenomenon of first explosion, then combustion, or combustion after explosion, or the alternation of combustion and explosion. Explosions are both physical and chemical, or two kinds of explosions occur alternately. Especially after a fire, due to the interaction between the burning track raw materials, locomotive chemicals and cable raw materials, production equipment and buildings, the fire expands rapidly, resulting in three-dimensional, large-area, multi fire points and other forms of combustion. Since most of the production raw materials, intermediates and products of chemical enterprises are in liquid or gas state, in addition to the flammable and explosive characteristics, they also have the characteristics of flow and diffusion, which adds extremely unstable risk factors to the situation change at the accident site, and increases the difficulty of fire fighting and rescue work and the consumption of equipment and reagents. At 9:55 on August 12, 1989, the explosion of Huangdao Oil Depot of China National Petroleum Corporation caused a fire, 14 fire fighters and 5 workers were killed, 84 fire fighters were injured, 7 fire engines and 2 command vehicles were incinerated, 5 oil tanks were burned, 346000 tons of crude oil and all supporting facilities, resulting in a direct economic loss of 35.4 million yuan and huge environmental pollution. The firefighting process lasted 104 hours, 2204 rescue workers and 159 fire engines were used, 10 aircraft, 19 ships, 239 tons of fire extinguishing agents

looking at some fire safety accidents that have occurred in the chemical industry in recent years, there are several main reasons:

first, the equipment is aging and out of repair, and the phenomenon of running, emitting, dripping and leaking is widespread, which is very easy to cause accidents. Due to capital, technology, personnel quality and other reasons, many chemical enterprises neglect to overhaul and improve the existing production and storage equipment, resulting in the leakage of dangerous chemicals due to pipeline cracks, valve damage, flange looseness and other equipment failures during production and storage, causing personnel poisoning or causing combustion and explosion. For example, 282 people were poisoned due to the leakage of liquid chlorine residue in Jiangxi oil chemical plant on April 20, 2004. The direct cause was the serious corrosion of the cylinder valve outlet and valve rod of the liquid chlorine steel cylinder. As the temperature rose, the gas in the cylinder expanded, flushing out the valve corrosion plug, resulting in the leakage of liquid chlorine residue; At about 9:45 p.m. on January 25th, 2007, a toxic gas leakage accident occurred in a pipe in Suzhou Industrial Park Fine Chemical Co., Ltd., resulting in 66 people being poisoned in two factories

second, employees operate against rules or operate improperly, resulting in accidents. The process flow and equipment of chemical enterprises are complex, and the operation control procedures are strict. There are clear regulations on the mixing proportion of raw materials, the temperature and pressure control of reaction vessels during production, etc. it is too late to regret a little negligence. For example, at 21:30 on June 27th, 1997, Dongfang Chemical Plant of Beijing Chemical Industry Group Co., Ltd. mistakenly filled the valve with light diesel oil, resulting in oil spillage and explosion in the fire source, causing 9 deaths and 39 injuries, and direct economic losses of 117 million yuan. In some small and medium-sized chemical enterprises, unlicensed personnel are employed in important positions, and the employees lack the necessary business training and safety knowledge. Illegal operations or improper operations often occur, often leading to malignant accidents. For example, on the first day of the lunar new year in 2006, and the glass was transparent and colorless, the 6-chlorodinitrotoluene distillation kettle of Changzhou Yabang Shenlian Chemical Co., Ltd. caused explosive mixture and high pressure in the distillation kettle due to production workers' violation of safety operation regulations, which caused the distillation kettle, which was originally under negative pressure, to deflagration, resulting in one death and three injuries

third, accidents are caused by poor management of fire sources and dangerous goods. The ignition sources of chemical enterprises generally include the following: open fire; Sparks generated by friction and impact; Electrical sparks and electrostatic sparks; Other substances, cigarette butts, motor vehicles, etc. that may cause spontaneous combustion on high-temperature surfaces. There are usually the following kinds of fire and explosion dangerous goods: explosive goods, oxidants, flammable and combustion supporting gases, flammable and combustion supporting liquids, flammable solids, spontaneous combustion goods and water burning goods. For example, Shenzhen Qingshuihe warehouse is a fire and explosion accident caused by the mixed storage of ammonium persulfate, sodium sulfide and other dangerous chemicals in the warehouse against regulations, causing chemical reactions

fourth, accidents caused by natural phenomena or disasters. Such as lightning, flood, earthquake, etc. For example, the methanol tank explosion accident of Jiangsu Tianzhi Chemical Co., Ltd. on July 4, 2006 was caused by lightning

the safety production work in the chemical industry is an important topic related to the Centennial plan of social and economic development. The implementation of preventive measures is an effective way to reduce and eliminate accidents. To strengthen the prevention of fire safety accidents in chemical enterprises, we should focus on the following links:

first, we should control the operation of facilities. Pay attention to the implementation of measures against high temperature, leakage, lightning and static electricity, strictly monitor the changes of various process parameters in the production process, and timely cool down and ventilate according to the safety operation procedures; Establish and improve the regular inspection system for production equipment, pressure pipelines, storage tanks and other facilities, including the air tightness, lightning protection and anti-static ability, high voltage and high temperature resistance and other performance of the inspection facilities; All equipment that does not meet the production and storage requirements shall be resolutely replaced and repaired in time, and relevant fire-fighting equipment, equipment and protective articles shall be put into use. If conditions permit, automatic fire alarm and automatic fire extinguishing facilities shall be set up to actively prevent and respond to accidents

the second is to ensure safety management. Strengthen the supervision and management of fire safety, implement regular fire safety inspections, and timely discover and eliminate hidden dangers. In particular, it is necessary to strengthen the management of fire sources and dangerous goods. Fireworks are strictly prohibited in the production area. In case of hot work, the approval procedures should be strictly followed, and the on-site fire safety protection measures should be effectively implemented; Dangerous goods that are easy to leak, burn and explode should be stored and kept according to the nature of all kinds of dangerous goods. For positions and key positions that are prone to accidents, management and prevention should be strengthened

the third is to control the quality of employees. The employees of chemical enterprises should be relatively stable, often carry out fire safety education and related activities, and use various forms to carry out extensive publicity of fire laws and regulations and fire knowledge, so that the majority of employees can be familiar with the fire hazards of the enterprise and the post, master the safety operation procedures of the industry, strengthen the awareness of safety production and self-protection, and master the skills of fire prevention and extinguishing, Improve their ability to deal with sudden disasters and accidents, especially for new employees, key types of work and operators in key parts, we should focus on strengthening education and guidance

fourth, we should control the collateral mechanism. Comprehensively implement the fire safety system within the enterprise, from the enterprise, workshop, team and even each employee to clarify their own fire safety responsibilities, and everyone is responsible for the fire safety in their own work, forming a comprehensive and three-dimensional fire safety management network. At the same time, it may take more than 10 years to establish and improve various fire safety systems, formulate fire accident disposal plans, establish various forms of full-time or compulsory fire pairs, and regularly carry out fire-fighting exercises to effectively improve the ability of emergency self-help for sudden disasters and accidents

the prevention of fire safety accidents in chemical enterprises is an arduous task. Only by continuously improving the fire safety awareness of enterprise cadres and workers, establishing an effective fire management mechanism, and paying attention to the implementation of various preventive measures, can we fundamentally reduce the occurrence of fire and explosion accidents and promote the healthy and orderly development of chemical enterprises

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